A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Means to achieve these ends usually include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, moral purchasing, supporting anti-war political candidates, demonstrations, and National political lobbying groups to create legislation. The political cooperative is an example of an organization that seeks to merge all peace movement organizations and green organizations which may have some diverse goals, but all of whom have the common goal of peace and humane sustainability.[i]
The first World Peace Conference, organized in London in 1843, marked a turning point in the way the advocates of peace were able to organize themselves and from around 1870 onwards the original Christian stance was supplemented with a quest for more fundamental human values. These were eventually to be collected under the heading Human Rights as formulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights accepted by the United Nations 10 January 1948.
The 1899 Hague Peace Conference (see also the chapter on the Peace Palace) proved to be a turning point in international relations. A resolution to establish the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague and, in the wake of this decision, to build a 'Temple of Peace' to accommodate this institution changed the face of pacifism for good.
In the years up to and including the First World War there was a particular emphasis on the development of legislation that could be used to settle or prevent armed conflicts. This resulted in the establishment of bodies such as the International Court of Arbitration (the predecessor of the PCA), the Permanent Court of International Justice (after 1945: the International Court of Justice) and the League of Nations (predecessor of the UN). Three major figures in these years were William Stead, Bertha von Suttner and Alfred Hermann Fried. The Peace Palace Library has several letters from Fried to Von Suttner in its collection.[ii]
Commonly regarded to be among history's greatest scientific minds, Linus Pauling will also forever be known as a courageous champion of peace and civil liberties. Alarmed by the use of atomic weapons at the end of World War II, Linus and Ava Helen Pauling spent countless hours over the next five decades speaking out against the dangers of nuclear fallout, weapons proliferation and the cultural effects of Cold War hysteria. Their efforts earned the Paulings both acclaim and enmity, though not often in equal measure. To some, the legacy of the Paulings' peace work remains controversial, but few will deny the duo's wide-ranging historical importance. Incorporating over 500 scanned documents, photographs, audio clips and video excerpts, this web resource features a number of rare and important items, most of which are held within Oregon State University Libraries' Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers.[iii]
Also known as the Peace Movement, the Day of Silence for Peace follows the tradition of rallies that use silence to be noticed. Participants wear a piece of white cloth across their mouths with Peace written on it to symbolize their unity and readiness to change their world. It means they are tired of the status quo, and are willing to challenge it. It hopes to achieve unity and a sense of empowerment for its participants - including the knowledge that they can have an impact without traveling to the far reaches of the earth. The first Day of Silence for Peace took place on October 23, 2007.[iv]Even after so many years of starting of the first World Peace Conference, organized in London in 1843 the international peace movements till today are not fully materialized its objectives. We are still unable to achieve the target of total peace and tranquility. This is a matter of great concern and world religious, social, political and economics leaders must take proactive steps to find out the actual causes which playing as a hindrance in achieving the objectives of world peace and to provide viable solutions. I have lot of reservations on the various peace movements and processes and laws governing the international peace and security that I will be go on writing in my subsequent Blogs.
Associate Professor of Law,
KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India,
Research Papers: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=1189281